2015, Ministry of Culture and Sport of Republic of Kazakhstan
One of the brightest and most essential types of Kazakh national applied art is the production of patterned mats - Shym shek. "Weaving mats as well as felt and weaving crafts, has a long history. This is confirmed by archaeological findings on the territory of Kazakhstan. The famous Besshatyr Semirechye mounds were found at the top of the burial chambers woven mats of reeds. "[1, p.74]. "Weave patterned mats has spread among the peoples of Siberia and Central Asia." [2, p.44].
Patterned Mat - an important attribute of the decoration of the yurt, acting as under overhangs kerege - lattice frame, and the door inner lining of felt - PWM yesik. [3, p.176]. Keep warm and protect from dust, it is perfectly decorates the interior of the yurt. [3, p.176]. Kazakh masters produced not only patterned mat. Simple, is not decorated mats used in the manufacture of felt, felt carpets - tekemets, syrmaki, used for drying various products, used as screens. "Sometimes there is a simple, bezuzornaya mat, woven from twigs Kuga, which is spread on the floor and therefore is called tөsegіsh shek, ie Chiev litter "[1, p. 75].
Chiev weaving was spread on the whole territory of Kazakhstan. Folk masters, winding color wool or yarn thin twigs plants, creating real works of art. And despite the fact that the basic structure of the composition of this type was traditional, regional differences still took place in the colors and patterns together, their size, and so on. D.
The process of weaving patterned mats time-consuming, requiring certain skills in this matter. "The work began with a cane harvesting. Chii growing on sandy and sandy loam soils, collected during the beginning of dead stems. In a hot climate zone, Chii is collected at the end of June, and in the northern regions in late September "[1, p.74]. Conveniently been producing ences collection and after the rain, when under the influence of moisture the plant stems are flexible and resilient. After collecting and drying but has been purified from leaves. Wool used cleaned and painted.
For weaving mats construct simple machine design height of not more than one and a half meters, which is two columns dug into the ground at a certain distance from each other, depending on the width of the next mat. Above the pillars are fixed crossbeam, which throws from five to eight woolen yarns. Balls of yarn to hang weights from both sides of the transverse beams. Imposing, the first stem, pre-wound yarn, mistress throws balls of yarn with weights in opposite directions, thereby weaving a stem. Then the stem is applied to the first and second fixed analogous method. Technique is repeated until the full completion of weaving mats. [1, p.74].
Drawing on the stems was applied using a hot wire or a metal paste, pre-expanding stems on a flat, horizontal surface. As far as ornamental composition, then Shym shi a geometric pattern in the form of large-scale lozenges - Sharshov and stepped polygons - zhүzteru as well, such as ayshyқ, omyrtқa - spine baldak - crutch horn curls - қoshқar mүyіz, қos mүyіz, synar mүyіz [1, p.75]. Patterned mat features a rich, multi-colored palette. Wool and yarn for winding stalks dyed with vegetable dyes. Archaeological remains of the ancient weaving patterns indicate quite a long history of using vegetable dyes, which for centuries has developed rules and recipes. In most cases, as the masters of dyes used plants growing on the territory of Kazakhstan. The color scheme of the Shim-shek, as in woven products, dominated by red, for coloring in the color used madder root. The deeper the red color is produced from insect - cochineal, which is widely used throughout the Central Asian territory. Brown is prepared from dried pomegranate peel, leaves and bark of walnut peel his fresh fruit, bark of oak and wild plum - plum, leaves and young shoots of quince. In the southern regions, where the development of horticulture, for coloring in yellow used the bark of apple, peach and apricot trees, the branches of the tree-sary aғash, onion peels, roots of barberry. With the emergence of chemical dyes, because of their reasonable price, ease of dyeing process and shades of brightness obtained, vegetable dyes have been partially pushed out.
By studying a collection of patterned mats GMI RK them. Kasteev, numbering twelve exhibits of this kind, it is possible to identify some specific regional differences.
For products Alma-Ata region (for example, three patterned mats Konyrova Bibi born in 1900, located in the museum's collection), characterized by rigor, static, monumental clear geometric elements ornament қos mүyіz, synar mүyіz, baldak patterns inscribed in multilayer diamonds. The composition of one of [TC-639] is constructed as a series of six settling throughout the length of rhomboid shapes inscribed one into another. Feel free to choose a color palette combination of general products. 4 focuses white rhombus, located in the center. The height of the mat is 140 cm., Length 830 cm. The composition ends with the two sides alternating stripes burgundy and blue colors and a wide strip of shea, woven without yarn. Border horizontally decorated with ornaments қos mүyіz combinations of white and burgundy colors.
The same belongs to the skilled worker felt the door - shi esіk [TC-640], which is on the inner side stitched patterned mat, making it more durable and elegant. The work is a finished composition, consisting of two laminated colored diamonds with ornaments қos mүyіz, synar mүyіz. Work done in the same style with the above product, is designed to create a single ensemble in the interior of the yurt. Product size 112h235 cm. The author uses the principle of the rhythmic alternation of white, black and red with clear, constructive drawing contours, giving the artistic sophistication.
Mats Chimkent region are more rounded lines and the construction of a free ornamental motifs. They are more than the illusion of movement and vibration. Color combinations are a lot of transitions and shades. Do not hesitate, use the gradation of black and white. The basic structure of the composition and use of certain kinds of ornament is traditional patterned mats in general, but a significant difference is the shape of ornamental elements, their combination with each other, and a common system of coloristic. At the same time, in spite of the general stylistic features in the works, there are significant differences. Work Mustafayeva Oric [TC-662], established in 1950, is saturated in color and composite attitude. The palette of deep, warm, has to rest and reflection, creates the impression of reliability and good quality. The work of unknown masters of the same area [TC-652], made at the same time, creates an atmosphere of celebration and fun, if there ornaments come to life in the rhythm of the dance of fire. And if in the first color product built on the harmonious combination of different colors, with a certain predominance of orange and red tones, then this work is dominated by red, playing various shades and tints. As in the first study, the presence of contrasts of black and white makes the expression, pulsating dynamics.
"Soft" line is used for the playback of ornament and masters Zhambyl region [TC-632, 663, 706], but they work more constructively and more subordinated to the geometric style. Composition mat [TC-663] performed Sarsenbaeva Bibi born in 1909, it consists of 4 lozenges arranged in a row along the entire length of the product. At each step the diamond inscribed polygons, each of their sides surmounted patterns baldak green and yellow colors. These patterns on the inner space of the polygons [3, p. 177]. Size 145h540 cm mat. Other product [TC-706], made Sarsenbaeva Shahar born in 1935, it is characterized in that the composition consists of a rhombic shapes with stepped edges, forming a grid of rhombuses in three rows. In the center of each diamond-shaped ornament in the form of a rectangle with tops baldak and exhaust on both sides synar mүyіz processes. Building ornament strictly geometrically. Another mistress Zhambyl region Gabbasova Kesip completed product [TC-632], which is a series of multi-layered rhombus with inscribed in them ornaments қos mүyіz, synar mүyіz, plastic ornament has a more rounded lines. Palette complex with lots of colors and color transitions. The border on the top and bottom is formed as a series of patterns baldak.
The collection includes original mat with a portrait of Lenin [TC-666], harmoniously inscribed in ornamental row. The work is interesting because it reflects the nature of time, and is a valuable monument of folk art, which have found their creative refraction unusual for chiepleteniya figurative motifs. Available in the collection of two samples of patterned mats Aktobe region is a two opposites, highlighting the diversity of the creative potential of skilled workers. Patterned Mat Tulegenova Alima born in 1916 [TC-630], dating from the 1940s, on the compositional structure echoes with mat Gabbasova Kesip Zhambyl region. The same rounded multicolored ornamental motifs, but the palette is much juicier. The basis of this three-layer composition of two diamond-shaped, interconnected and adorned with ornaments қoshқar, қos, synar mүyіz. The central field of each rhombus decided differently, which indicates a creative approach to their work masters. Particular attention is drawn to the color scale. The shimmering multi-colored iridescence fill a living work, tremulous vibration.
The work of unknown masters of Aktobe region [mk-4] - is an example of strict geometrical construction in the form of stepped multilayer diamonds with the lack of any ornamental elements. The palette plays like a red - yellow, red - black, red - white, red - green, red - and yellow again. Contrasting with respect to each other colors give the product severity and constructive.
The study of this type of national applied arts were engaged in domestic and foreign researchers. Mukanov MS in his book "Kazakh domestic crafts", among other items of applied art has described a method of making patterned mats, described the basic patterns used in the compositions of Shim-shek, defined the role of these products in the Kazakh life [1, p. 74]. S. J. Tohtabaeva in the book "Masterpieces of the Great Steppe" briefly, but aptly describes this interesting and kind of art form, pointing to the use of the mats and in medical practice [4, p.63].
Unfortunately, every year the traditional patterned mats, as well as many other types of applied art of Kazakhstan, are increasingly becoming a museum treasure. But there are positive aspects - the traditions of the Kazakh national applied art greatly influenced the development of contemporary arts and crafts, and became the basis for the creation of new works.
Technology weaving patterned mats is used in the works of contemporary artists. The creative high schools of our students can master these skills. Starting from the national forms, contemporary artists transform them, enriching their own way continuing the tradition of folk art. Among them Krupko J., R. Bazarbaeva, Bapanova SA, sister Gabo and many others. Patterned mat may take place in the modern home, as her color, patterns, and their composition is not inferior artistic quality rugs [5, p.33].
To date, the task of our contemporaries is not only to preserve works of applied art, but also, if possible, to revive the traditions of folk art.
Museum them Kasteev RK.